'Biomarkers of remodeling' represent a loose collection of features referring to several biological adaptations of the lung to cope with stressing factors. In addition, remodel-'ing' infers a dynamic process that would require a spatiotemporal resolution. This review focuses on different aspects of remodeling in pediatric and adult care.

This review will cover aspects of pediatric remodeling, adult remodeling and techniques and procedures to adequately assess remodeling across different age spectra. In pediatrics, the onset and first features of remodeling are discussed and the continuation into adolescence is addressed. For adults, this review addresses predominant features of remodeling throughout the adult life span and whether there are currently interventions available to treat or reverse remodeling.

The term 'remodeling' is often referred to via biomarkers that reflect the endstage of a process, although it rather reflects a continuous process starting in childhood and progressing to all age-levels in patients with asthma. Hence, only few biomarkers or surrogates are able to 'capture' its spatiotemporal component, and hardly any are ready for routine use in clinical practice. Given the clinical impact of the remodeling processes, new biomarkers are needed to adequately treat patients with asthma and objectively monitor treatment response beyond symptom control and lung function.