In the aftermath of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, the firm ground of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been thoroughly shaken. While there was agreement that HT is indicated for the therapy of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, there was a general and often heated debate on the justification of additional indications. As a consequence, oral estrogen plus progestin HT use in the USA, for example, dropped precipitously, from 5.6 million users in 2001 to 2.5 million in 2003. This decline reflected the confusion, if not turmoil, among health-care providers and the general public. To worsen matters, the confusion was reinforced and amplified by the media. Luckily, the dust has settled, but the question on the purpose of long-term HT still remains.